Monday, 22 May 2017

Applying Externalisation to improve effectiveness & reduce costs, #digitisation

The previous post (here) showed increasing use of externalisation.  In this post, I’ll touch on ‘How’.  It can be used to reduce costs and improve effectiveness.

Recap, what is externalisation?

It is a way of working.

Instinctively we execute tasks, achieve goals and work within the organisation, something we have been doing for centuries.  Externalisation allows the same, say a task, to be accomplished using an external element. Contracting is already practiced today but it is the unconventional (for now) extension to involve customers and the public that is changing how organisations operate.  Payment too is not usually made and unlike contracting which plays a peripheral role, externalisation can be strategically used or simply to provide a better alternative.

It can be a task like building an alternative review team (Alibaba) - externalising a task, at little cost
It can be a function like designing a car part (BMW) - externalising a function.
It can be a goal like developing closer customer relationship (Goldman Sachs) - externalising business goals.
It can create an encyclopaedia (Wikipedia) – externalising fact finding.
It is strategic like Uber – upending the taxi industry.

[These examples are elaborated in the previous post]

Societal connectivity brought about by the internet made this possible.  Used by internet startups and some of the more progressive firms like GE, this form of externalisation lowers cost and improves effectiveness. 

If you’re asking “isn’t that crowdsourcing?”, the difference is that externalisation is a way of thinking and is a working practice while crowdsourcing is a method to engage the community (public, customers, industrial ecosystem).  Externalisation efforts use crowdsourcing as a tool.

Tapping this process

Unlike what we are used to, it is difficult to simply order a task to be carried out by externalisation.

This is because it is mostly an indirect technique.  You are not paying the ‘workers’.  You cannot force your customers to use the internal tools (Goldman Sach) or review suppliers (Alibaba).  Uber needs to coerce the ‘drivers’ who can leave anytime.

Nevertheless it is a deliberate process and a continuous one to make it work.  You must find value for the ‘workers’ because in most cases, you just don’t make a payment.  It destroys the nature of the task.  It is, for example, ridiculous for Goldman Sachs to pay their customers to use its in-house analytic tools and data platforms.  In some cases, money can induce like BMW’s case (leads to a contract) or prizes for winners of hackletons but that’s mostly it.  And it’s indirect with Uber - the customer pays the driver with Uber getting a cut.

This post – value-of-free – explains this digital economy dichotomy of ‘working’ with no pay, showing how value for the ‘workers’ is created. It is this alternative value that makes externalisation efforts work.

There is a degree of volunteerism and community.

The ‘workers’ need nurturing.

And to make it work, a different kind of skill is required.  Tweaking the corporate culture helps.

I think [in a certain traditional way], therefore I am

Change is bugbear.  Senior management recognise the problem of inertia within their organisations.  Those charged with transformation know that messing with their operational culture is tough.  But also that untangling it is critical for long term good of the firm in a digital era; otherwise transformation will only be at the fringes.

Recognition of the issue is the starting point

Most organisations today have a top-down command-and-control culture.  They tend towards being closed, hierarchical and inward-looking. Trust is within.

Internet startups that perhaps are showing the way of new (internet) culture operates quite differently.  They are peer-oriented (vs command control), inclusive (vs closed) and likes partnership (vs inward-looking).  They operate with an open ethos.  Millennials like such environments so it is not just about transformations but the workforce.

Loosen up

If executives can grasp this working culture they will start to think differently and perhaps become more effective in their transformation efforts.  They will, for example, be more willing to consider the outside beyond the limitations of their personal network.

More on internet culture here:

Most of all, be open!

In the meantime, turn it into a process

Our long tradition with internalisation (see previous post) makes it hard to practise externalisation.  Try to turn it into a process, something managers are familiar with.  Think of it as a deliberate process. 

The operative words are engagement and ‘outwardness’.

Take small steps such as the use of reviews and comments but this time take it seriously and certainly more than a suggestion box.

‘Online reviews and comments on social media help consumers see a product’s underlying merits and demerits, not the image that its makers are trying to build around it.’
 – “It’s a real thing” - Economist 14 Nov 2015.

But obviously not all tasks or organisation functions can be externalised.  Understanding crowdsourcing, the open-source-business-model and the peer-to-peer-business-model helps.

For the long term, build a community around your products and firm.  Engage this community continuously.  New job titles I expect will emerge in the industry – community leader, engagement executives, collaboration evangelist….


Tools for externalisation include crowdsourcing, open API, OpenData, open platforms, blogs, social media, messaging and hackeltons but it can be as simple as “BMW hosting a ‘virtual innovation agency’ on its website”.   The habit of collecting emails (even if there is no obvious reason) and building communities (even if it is not obvious yet) are all part of long term externalisation efforts.

But bear in mind that it’s mostly in the mind.

Yours externally,

As internalisation is embedded in today’s operational culture so externalisation will too.  If your mind instinctively considers external elements as much as internal ones when you are tasked, you are there.  Like, I believe, Elon Musk.

Friday, 12 May 2017

To apply digitisation, Externalisation is something managers need to know of

Externalisation is the reason tech giants like Google and Facebook employ only a fraction of workers per dollar of revenue or market capitalisation, compared with traditional industrial firms like General Motors and Boeing.  It is also the reason crowdsourcing works.

It ups productivity, lowers costs, improves product designs, and keeps businesses up-to-date.  Used by tech startups today, this practice will meander into wider use as the economy digitises.

‘Early on the company hired a lot of editors to write book and music reviews - and then ­decided to use customers’ critiques instead. ‘ - Jeff Bezos's Top 10 Leadership Lessons, Forbes, 4 Apr 2012

‘On his new blogging site, Medium, although he did not say so, Mr. Williams is putting good tools out into the world and letting the users decide what the product is. That strategy worked out O.K. for Twitter.’ May 2014

Externalisation involves and uses an external element in order to achieve an organisation goal; task or business function.  Not to be confused with the use of contractors, it is best understood by comparing it to internalisation which is how most organisations operate today. 

Internalisation is a way of working, externalisation will complement it

As a manager, when tasked, the first thing that comes to mind is who in the team is the most suitable to handle it.  Tasks are carried out internally.  That’s internalisation and it’s something that comes naturally to us, and has for centuries. 

There is a reason for this.  As dissected by Ronald Coase in his seminal theory of firms (The nature of firms, 1937), it is really about transaction costs – it cost less to trust internal staff and processes compared to the external even if the latter’s capabilities (and unit cost) are better.

That was pre-internet, before widespread societal connectivity. 

From fringe to mainstream in a digital age

Today, the cost structure has changed and trust can be engendered without (rating systems is one way) at little cost.  Externalisation if used correctly can improve organisation effectiveness.

’What has provided a lifeline to Alibaba is the user-generated rating systems for the thousands of online small merchants that Alibaba would otherwise have no way to police.’
– China Daily Asia Weekly, 12 Aug 2016.

If Alibaba customers did not provide an alternative, it would have to build a huge internal team to carry out on-site reviews the traditional way and even then it may not be effective because of China’s vastness. 

Study tech startups up close and you will see sizeable aspects of externalisation in their operations, and the reason for their relatively small workforce.

“In 1990 the top three carmakers in Detroit had a market capitalisation of $35 billion and 1.2m employees. In 2004 the top three firms in Silicon Valley, with a market capitalisation of over $1 trillion, had only 137,000 employees.” – Economist, 17 Sept 2016. 

[If you protest that Ford has factories, Google also runs them – see ‘Value creation in the digital economy’.

Suggestion boxes transmuted

The suggestion box in banks has been around for a long time.  Though one can say it is an instance of externalisation since it engages outsiders - the customers, it is at the fringe.

Externalisation today is strategically used to achieve specific corporate functions.  AirBnB depends on ratings and comments in its business model, it is more than a suggestion box.  Alibaba turned it into an effective business mechanism. 

Firms already use contractors, an early form of externalisation, but they function primarily within itself.  Day-to-day work is done internally; product development, sales, design, marketing and so on.  And sometimes it’s augmented by partners such as ad agencies or IT outsourcing.  They are paid.  They play a supporting role.

With externalisation, this extends the eco-system to include customers (think Alibaba), the public (think Wikipedia) and in a different but strategic manner – freelancers (Uber).   Tasks are in fact augmented by external manpower but not in the conventional way.  

Participants are not usually paid and even if they are, like Uber, it is the clients who pay.

It is usually not contractual, at least not in the traditional watertight sense but mostly there is no contract at all.  Crowdsourcing is used.

In general the external elements are engaged indirectly.  And unlike outsourcing, they can play more than a supporting role.  Sometimes it’s not to augment an internal team but to replace most of it. 

Tapping the public to develop services

“Transport for London (TfL), an organization responsible for all public transit in London, wanted to provide its customers with a mobile app to help navigate public transportation options. Instead of spending public funds to develop its own app, TfL invested in a framework that allowed third-party developers to access TfL’s transportation data and use it to create innovative travel apps, maps, and services on their own. Since the program launched in 2009, more than 8,000 developers have signed up for it. One local startup, Citymapper, used TfL’s data to create an urban navigation app that has become the go-to resource for Londoners—and the company has expanded to cover more than 30 cities. Overall, every £1 invested by TfL in its open data framework has yielded £58 in benefits for Londoners. By embracing open data, TfL created much greater value for its customers, and did so much more quickly than it could have on its own, while also creating extraordinary opportunities for startups like Citymapper.” – “Acting on the Digital Imperative”

This is an example of an Open Data initiative, where outsiders are given access to internal data to encourage the development of useful services around it.

Two things from the above example; value is exchanged (see free now has value) for the participants - it has to for externalisation to work and secondly externalisation is used to achieve a goal.

Externalisation is not limited to tasks

Consider another example.

‘Once sacrosanct and only available in-house, Goldman Sachs is gradually transitioning to a more open-source model for technology, giving its clients more direct access to its in-house analytic tools and data platforms’, according to the Wall Street Journal. 

This is really for business development, to deepen ties to its (external) clients.  It’s like thinking ‘what if we open up, giving clients (externalising) access to the internal tools, what can that act of indirectly engaging clients do for the business?’. 

Fluevog might have thought the same.

“John Fluevog, a designer of high-end shoes created open source footwear by allowing customers to submit designs. They get to put their names on the shoes.  The best ones get put into production.”

Here the consumers are engaged to co-design shoes.  Through this, Fluevog gets new ideas (innovation), knows what customer wants (instead of best guess), reduces his number of designers (costs) and get plugged in to the latest trends with some sales to boot.  Trends can be tracked in situ and since keeping up-to-date is a perennial issue with established firms, this alone is quite a benefit.

Externalising goals, externalising organisation functions

This example shows one of the more impactful ways to use externalisation.

Externalising design and tapping ideas

‘BMW hosted a ‘virtual innovation agency’ on its website where small and medium sized businesses can submit ideas in hopes of establishing an ongoing relationship.’

It is the SMEs that create the ideas, BMW merely ask for them.  For this to work though, it helps that your organisation is well known.

The next is an example to externalise marketing and business development.

Global branding and expansion at a low cost

In 2009, as it was becoming well known, TED decided that instead of managing its brand more tightly as conventional wisdom instructs, it would create a free license for others to host local conferences, called TEDx.  Now six or seven TEDx events are held every day.  These events seem to add to the lustre of the main conferences, rather than dilute them.  The talks are also posted online free, with little advertising.  By not milking things, TED has inspired people to contribute to it for nothing: 8,000 volunteers have translated subtitles for thousands of videos into more than 90 languages.  And by getting consumers to do things for nothing, TED has managed to innovate with fewer resources.  All of this requires establishing a community of users and accepting some loss of control.  Such tactics might not work for say Coka Cola or Intel.  Yet they may work with others.  A kitchenware-maker might want to create a place on its website for amateur chefs to show off their skills and recipes, for ex., or a sporting-goods firm could encourage local tournaments with its brand.  While there are critics, it shows what is sometimes possible by taking what is valuable and giving it away.” – 3 Nov 2012 Economist.

This example shows one way branding can be carried out for an information-based business.  Note that TED does not have the resources to develop its market overseas and that quickly. 

The final example helps with the difficult task of R&D.

Externalising R&D

“NanoDoc (Bristol Robotics Lab) works like an online game. It allows bioengineers and anyone else who would like to have a go, a chance to model nanoparticles. As in most computer games, players need to earn their spots and work through the first levels to become a master or in this case a certified NanoDoc. Their reward is a real challenge; for example designing a nanoparticle that can detect a rare event such as a sudden cancerous mutation.  The best solutions are tested in the lab. And if successful, will be tried in animals and ultimately in human trials.  Since its launch in Dept 2013, NanoDoc users have performed over 80,000 simulations. – Economist Dec 2014.

In this post, through examples, I have shown the rise in the use of externalisation, a method important in a digital economy, first from internet startups and then some traditional firms.  In the next post, I’ll touch on ‘How’.

Friday, 20 January 2017

Value creation in a digital economy and why it matters for businesses

How does Facebook work?  We know it is based on social (as a business model) and that crowdsourcing enables it.  And by mining the data that we, the users create, turns it into information to support ads sales.

When we use social media, it is crowdsourcing at work.  As the term imply, the crowd (public) is sourced.  In this context, crowdsourcing is a technique employed to engage the public with intent but in an informal manner to participate in an activity and which taps on the participant’s resources.  It can be as simple as time, say, to use an online service, effort to work on a communal task or assets such as a spare room.  In the case of online services like Facebook, it is people’s time to use a free service.  They use it because there is value. It’s free because Facebook monetises that usage.  For crowdsourcing to work, it has to be mutual.

From an organisation perspective, crowdsourcing is a tool used to accomplish an organisational function.  From a participant perspective, value is exchanged in the transaction.

This is another way to look at it.

Facebook is a modern factory.  We, via crowdsourcing are the ‘workers’ producing the raw material – data.  Facebook processes this input, manufacturing informational and quasi-informational products and adding value to physical ones.  These ‘finished products’ – specific and tailored information are used for sales of ads.

Now compare this to a factory producing steel?  The steel mill takes in raw material (iron, coke, etc) from mines as inputs and with workers turn them into steel bars for sale.

What’s the difference?

The difference is that instead of a factory, this modern version is a digital platform.  Instead of miners, consumers produce the raw material.  Instead of the assembly line, networks of computers use analytics, machine learning and AI to assemble insights of information from the data. 

This suggests that a new form of production is emerging just as factories did in the industrial one. 

And if history is asked, this is only the start.  Expect enlargement and further developments in digital forms of production as we move deeper into the information era.  But unlike the industrial age that limits production to factories, in the information era it will cut across all sectors, including the government and the public.  It is beyond this post to ponder further but perhaps the effects of datarisation may offer some hints.  And the following three points too.

1.  Redefinition of the term ‘consumer’

Until the internet, consumers only consume, now they also produce.

We produce the data, willingly and unwittingly, for Facebook’s factory or LinkedIn’s.  We provide the cars and drivers for Uber’s ‘taxi’ services.  And our spare rooms for AirBnB’s virtual hotel.  We produce answers for Quora’s Q&A business engine.  There is value to all these ‘production’.

Businesses should bear this in mind.  Digitisation partly derives from this. 

2.  The digital platform

This ‘new’ factory is not your firm’s website.  It is much more.  A corporate website is mostly passive, designed to be read while a platform actively engages the consumers using crowdsourcing initiatives for branding exercises, pre-sales, sales, business development, product development…..

A digital platform is central to this production process.  It is likely to see significant changes in function, role and technology in time to come.  Certainly in 10 years, it’ll be quite a different animal!

3.  Data

Old culture tends to view data as a by-product, not the way to reimagine your organisation planning for transformation.

Firms have always used data but in the digital economy, the role of data has been elevated.  What Google sees, telcos do too but little is done to monetise it while Google built a billion-dollar search business out of data.  Github’s business model is information around software development while Microsoft saw its huge development community as a cost centre.  Many other startups are taking advantage of data that traditional firms could not see.  As they succeed, the latter becomes mere followers.  Witness banks copying fintech startups.  Being an early-mover would have equipped them to better compete in sectors being disrupted.

To do that they have to respect data.

Merely thinking in terms of big data or analytics is not quite it.  Senior leaders could make ‘data’ a part of their strategic thinking.  Better if it’s ‘culturised’.  And should they reason that this is the job for the IT director or CIO, well, that’s an example of not respecting data and a wrong way to think.  IT should be involved but this is mostly a business function. 

Executives who work and breathe ‘data’ are assets.  They would collect emails contacts (clients, public) even before thinking what they can be used for.  If it’s about selling herb plants, they don’t just write the names on the tag but how it can be used for health and in cooking, with a website address (used to engage consumers, some of whom will become customers.)  This is an example of using information to sell, like Facebook.

New organisation culture is partly data-driven. 


A new production process is evident of the digital economy resulting in value creation that is markedly different from the conventional.  Internet startups have taken advantage of this, disrupting traditional sectors in the process.  There is nothing to stop conventional firms adopting the same, except perhaps the momentum of old organisation culture and the fear of change.  For those who can unshackle itself, New Culture is data-driven, customer-centric and open with a mentality that melds externalisation to the traditional internalisation of work.  They should be aware of the redefined role of consumers and what they can do for businesses.

Briefly, externalisation is a means to utilise external resources (manpower, property) and is best understood by comparing it to internalisation which is how most organisations operate today.  With internalisation, tasks are carried out internally and in some specific cases by close partners governed by strict contracts.  This is because of trust and to maintain better control.  But as Ronald Coase in his famous theory of firms dissected it, it is really about cost – it cost less to trust internal staff and processes compared to the external.  That was pre-internet.  Today, the cost structure has changed.  Trust can now be engendered without (rating systems is one way), at little cost.  It is also a way to tap better skills.   Externalisation in fact lower costs.

Well then Facebook is not only about face-time!